Ordinary water differs from all known liquids and has over sixty anomalous properties. These properties of water are crucial for life on Earth. They determine the climate, ocean streams, the height of trees, the human body temperature and many other things, which form the face of our planet.

About a hundred years ago, scientists could not explain the behaviour of water. The secret was in the droplets, into which its separate molecules self-organised. In 2008, these droplets were found when radiating pure water with powerful X-ray radiation in synchrotrons in the U.S.A. and Japan. In explaining the results, the author of the study, Prof. Anders Nilsson with the Stanford University, compared the water molecule with restaurant guests. A restaurant where all guests are sitting at tables is frozen water. If slow music starts to be played, someone will start dancing, but many other will remain at the tables – ice starts thawing. The dancing restaurant guests are the molecules of ordinary disordered water. Those sitting at the tables are droplets of ordered water. The events in this restaurant are occurring very fast: in a second, a water molecule happens to “dance and sit at the table” dozens and hundreds of millions of times. 

Droplets of ordered water are called spherical water clusters. These clusters are formed by hundreds of water molecules. As winking lights, they are formed, decay and finally are formed again. The number of these spheres of ordered water is greater in thaw ice, freshly-squeezed juice and spring water.

Water cluster computer simulation and estimates show that a fullerene molecule, С60, perfectly fits its natural structure and does not contradict it structurally in any way. Furthermore, now this cluster stops flickering. Its life is unlimited! 

Water molecules near other molecules or vessel walls create a regular water layer. This water of the exclusion zone or the so-called edge water. In terms of properties, it drastically differs from ordinary water. In May 2013 the book titled «The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor» was published. It was written by the professor from the University of Washington – Gerald Pollack. Understandable summary of the Pollack’s findings is provided in his lecture «Water, Energy and Life: Fresh Views from the Water Edge», given by him in 2008.

In his papers, professor Pollack convinces that the exclusion zone water is liquid crystal, it differs from volume water by viscosity, density, freezing point and dielectric properties. It has long been thought that water of living beings is similar to ordinary water. Understanding that water in the body is liquid crystal may serve the basis for new discoveries both in biology and medicine.